Roof coating in Houston is a popular way to maximize your roof’s lifespan and function, which are the best? The polymer-based coatings offer a host of benefits to people looking for a long-term solution for their fading roof. For example, an asphalt roof coating is an excellent way to keep the building cool in hot weather and save money on your hefty energy bills.
However, if you choose silver coating for your roof, it covers the surface and adds to its strength and durability. Moreover, it doesn’t look metallic at all. An aluminum coating is another suitable option that looks more like paint, creating a subtle and unique effect.
Besides this, you can also use polyurea, granules, and acrylic for roof coatings in Houston. All these roof coatings benefit your commercial building roofing by reducing fungal growth and keeping your roof material safe from algae.
These coatings are self-priming, so they have become a popular choice for roofs. If you’re considering this option, keep reading to learn more about roof coatings in Houston.
Roof Coatings – What You Need to Know
Roof coatings use polymer-based liquid compounds for the roof. Coatings contractors spray or roll them onto the existing roof. Homeowners and businesses opt for coatings for residential and commercial roofing to extend the lifespan of the current roof without having to replace it.
Roof coatings are an easy way to add a protection layer to the roof surface and shield it against water, light, and other elements. Houston roof coatings have also become a standard solution to prevent the roofs from corrosion, cracks, and other structural damage while delaying roof replacement.
However, ensure that you work with credible and qualified roofing coatings contractors such as Trinity Roofing and Restoration to get the job done. Only the leading roofing coating service can offer you the best commercial roofing in Houston.
Why You Should Choose Roof Coating
Managing business finances are challenging, and unexpected expenditure can make them worse. And roof replacement isn’t an exception, as it is a costly affair. It puts homeowners and businesses in the red line even when it is an expected expense.
The cost to replace the roof has increased significantly, especially if your building is large and old. If your roof is wearing out, broken, or has started weakening, and you don’t have enough finances to replace it, a roof coating is one solution.
It isn’t only the cost-effective way to increase your roof’s lifespan and delay replacement for a few years. This affordable and savvy way to improve your roof’s condition can help you save significant money on energy or HVAC bills.
Moreover, a roof coating is a great solution to insulate the building and keep the house’s inside temperature optimal. This way, your HVAC doesn’t have to work harder.
Book a Free Inspection and a complimentary consultation, we can provide you with an estimate and offer you some options. Fill out the form below now.
Best Commercial Roof Coatings in Houston You Can Choose
Polyurea roofing coating is made of an elastomer substance primarily derived from polymerization. It combines isocyanate and synthetic resin. The roof coating offers unique benefits that set it apart from other protective coatings.
Polyurea comes in many forms and types, similar to acrylic and urethane coatings. This is one of the most sought-after roof coatings in Houston for its brilliant structural enhancement, abrasion, waterproofing, and corrosion protection.
The roof coating is typical on single-ply roofs, metal roofs, modified bitumen, foam, and built-up roofs.
Asphalt is a standard material for roof coating, and there are several good reasons for this. Some asphalt coatings are relatively fire-resistant, reasonable to purchase and install and come in many colors. In fact, when you compare shingle coating to metal, it costs less.
The coating uses a solvent that makes it easier and thinner to apply. It doesn’t need any heavy equipment. Experienced roof coatings contractors can spray or brush it on the roof. The coating works best for membrane, metal, and built-up roofs. It is long-lasting and a go-to variety that typically can protect the roof for five years.
Also called elastomeric coatings, Acrylic roof is not only highly reflective but also a great option to prevent corrosion. Plexiglass is one of the standard acrylic coatings, famous for its durability, strength, and flexibility. These features make acrylic coating ideal for hard roofing surfaces such as metal. They allow the roof to contract and expand with the metal.
The coatings are also easy to apply through a spray nozzle. The application method is less labor-intensive and quicker. The coating is good at withstanding most climates in Houston and provides excellent value.
Polyurethane roof coatings have exceptional impact resistance. That means the roof coating is perfect for surfaces with higher foot traffic. Though Polyurethane coatings don’t have ultraviolet stability if they are aromatic, they are relatively cost-effective to apply before another layer.
If cost isn’t an issue, you can opt for an aliphatic polyurethane roof coating that is UV stable, color-resistant, and easy to clean.
You can add granules to your existing roof coating system to enhance the roof’s resistance to abrasion and heavy impact. The roof coating type creates a non-slip surface and improves safety significantly. If you’re looking for a safer, more durable, and aesthetically appealing coating for commercial roofing, granules are the right choice. You can use the coating on single-ply roofs, modified bitumen roofs, and asphalt shingles.
Ideal for high-traffic surfaces, a urethane roof coating is what you need for excellent durability, flexibility, and seamless application. Like acrylic, urethane also can contract and expand with the roof structure.
In addition, the roof coating can better resist heavy impact and water pooling compared to many roof coatings.
Which are the Right Roof Coatings in Houston?
If your commercial roofing needs a new coating or you’re looking for the best roof surface, choose the roofing that:
It is easy to step on
Resists grease, chemicals, or acid
Has UV stability
Has high wind resistance
Withstands temperature extremes
Roof coatings in Houston come in a wide variety. However, you need to choose the best one that suits your building needs. The given roof coating types are excellent options and offer plenty of benefits to commercial roofing.
How much does a roof coating cost? Typically a Roof Coating Cost Application in Houston, TX is between $1 to $3 per sq. ft. depending on your roof height, size, and application method. If the working conditions are difficult or you use the labor for more than the standard service, the charges increase. The price of the materials can be between $0.15 to $2.75 per square foot depending on the sealant type. Roof coating and sealing are integral parts of roof coating.
The cost data is from research and previous project costs done by Trinity Roofing and Restoration
A roof coating is a great way to improve your home’s overall value. Regardless of the material you use for your roof, making it last forever is impossible. Over the years, the material wears off, damaging the structure in many ways.
The good news is, that there are numerous methods you can use to maintain or restore the health of your roof. One way is to apply roof coating.
How much does a roof coating cost? Table of contents
Although a roof coating restoration system isn’t a permanent solution to make roofing last long, it can help you make the roof invincible to climate and other damages, and it is guaranteed to extend the lifespan of your roof.
You only need to hire reliable roofing contractors such as Trinity Roofing and Restoration and rely on their expertise. Their reputed and seasoned roofers use sustainable and high-quality roofing products to ensure you make the most of your roofing solution.
If you need a roof coating for your home or want to upgrade your commercial property, learning how much does a roof coating costs is crucial.
Let’s delve into the details to find out how much does a roof coating costs in Houston, TX.
Factors Affecting the Roof Coating Cost in Houston
It is hard to find the cost of roof coating without professionally inspecting it. Keep in mind that the roof type, building size, and weather in your area significantly impact the costs of roof coating.
Generally, the following factors can contribute to increasing or decreasing the cost, but they will give you a pretty good idea of how much a Roof Coating Costs you in Houston.
Reasons to Coat Your Roof
Before we discuss the costs of coating the roof in Houston, let’s quickly go through why you might want to choose this option.
Waterproofing – Roof sealant fill hairline cracks and repels water. You can benefit from urethane and silicone resist ponding on commercial roofs.
Flame resistance – While not all roof coatings resist fire, you can choose one with a UL fire rating.
Extend roof lifespan – Sealing a worn roof extends its lifespan by 10 to 15 years with a coating that protects against leaks and UV exposure.
Resists corrosion– Roof coating prevents corrosion and rust on metal roofs. Silicone, aluminum-based, rubber, polyurethane, and elastomeric-acrylic coatings protect the metal from other elements.
Cool Roof Coating
The cost is different when you install reflective roof coating. The average cost of excellent roof coating ranges between $0.50 and $4.50 per sq. ft. It may increase or decrease depending on the material you use. Some typical materials for reflective roof coating include liquid rubber, silicone, polyureas, acrylic, and aluminum-based sealants.
The white or white cooling paints repel the UV rays and heat to stabilize the temperature indoors. The cool-roof coating is the most reflective and can repel 60 percent to 90 percent of sunlight.
Roof Repairs, Prep, and Cleaning Work Before Coating
Remember that the coating doesn’t adhere properly if your roof is dirty. And proper adhesion is necessary to get long-term results or to avoid a complete roof replacement. That is to say, roof coating costs and cleaning depend on the prep work needed before the job.
How Much Does a Roof Coating Cost? by Sealant Type
Commercial roof coating is well worth the cost as it is vital in protecting your roof, keeping it safe, prolonging its lifespan, and saving money. On average, the roof coating costs in Houston are between $1 and $4 per sq. ft.
However, it depends on the roof material you choose, the sealant type, and the prep work your roof requires. The cost to seal and coat the top is not more than $500 to $2000.
Let’s delve into the details to determine how much does a roof coating costs, by the sealant type.
How much does a Polyurethane Roof Coating Cost?
It can cost you around $1.5 to $4 per sq. ft. to install polyurethane roof coating. The coating is highly durable and can last between 30 and 50 years if maintained properly. Plus, polyurethane roof coating offers excellent compatibility with different roof materials. It insulates well and comes in a blend of elastomeric additives and acrylic-urethane.
Choose polyurethane roof coating as it is:
Suitable for heavy foot traffic
Resistant to water pooling
Great for flat roofs or low-sloping
The standard option for commercial roofing systems
Acrylic Roof Coating Cost
The cost of acrylic roof coating is between $0.50 and $3.00 per sq. ft and depends on the sealant type and the number of coats. The standard and most sought-after acrylic-based coating combines urethane, silicone, rubbers, and elastomeric.
You can opt for this roof coating restoration system as it can:
Last 7 to 15 years
Need outdoor temperature above 50°F to 60°F to cure
Come in a variety of colors
While acrylic-based coating suits sunny and hot climates, it isn’t ideal for heavy rains and flat roofs.
Silicone Roof Coating Prices
Silicone roof coating is slightly an expensive option as it can cost you $1.50 to $4.50 per sq. ft to install. Despite its higher cost, many people choose the roof coating type for its exceptional durability and waterproof qualities. Your roof contractor can charge you 20 percent extra if you have a sloped roof with a complex application.
However, the roof coating in Houston is overall a good option as it can:
Last 10 to 20 years
Protect against harsh weather
Reflect up to 90 percent of UV rays
EPDM Sheet Roof Coating Cost
If you want to install EPDM sheets, it can cost you $3 to $11 per sq. ft. Installing this roof coating is expensive because it requires the removal of old layers costing homeowners $0.50 to $2.00 per sq. ft. for replacements.
Instant Cost Estimator
How much does a roof coating cost in Houston? is comparatively more affordable than in other towns. If it’s installed correctly, it can offer your roof an array of benefits, including long-term protection and improved lifespan.
If you’re looking for an affordable roof coating in Houston, TX, our team at Trinity Roofing can help. We offer a variety of roof coatings that can improve the lifespan of your roof and offer other benefits, such as protection from the sun’s UV rays.
A commercial property leaking roof could turn out to be a real nightmare. It can easily disrupt business operations and affect your bottom line. In this video, Matt is going to show you what went wrong with this commercial property leaking roof in Missouri City.
Hey, what’s going on everybody, Matt #dadbodbod on your roof with Trinity Roofing and Restoration out here in Missouri City this time.
Roof #4 for the day, Cuatro!
So, can anybody tell me what’s wrong with this roof? they don’t know why it’s leaking they don’t have a clue! Actually, they have a clue they know why is leaking, the roof is messed up, right?
Why is This Commercial Property Roof Leaking?
They hired somebody, last time I told him what was wrong… to do this! which is fine, solved some of the problems. The problem was, that they put too much of it on one side after there were already ripples there. There was already moisture inside there was already off-gassing which caused more ripples. Causing in this case, the modified Bitumen to come off the roof decking, there were no caps or there was no base sheet on this.
I don’t, I mean obviously, they use a primer or something on here ’cause it’s pretty nasty looking.
But essentially, what happened was the water started penetrating into here and pulled off the membrane when it got too heavy and now every time, they have a wind-driven rain they’ve got the water going right inside there.
You can see all the leaves, you can see all the debris, you can see the nastiness in there. This is on commercial property in Missouri City so it needs to be maintained, not like a house doesn’t but this one affects the business it can get people sick and there’s water coming in all over the place.
You know the other thing about this one is whoever they have does not I hate talking bad about other people but maybe they just don’t know right?
These fasteners are still resting. They hit the seam and didn’t hit the fasteners, but whatever the stuff is they’re using is not sealing all the way. It is still cracking it is not lasting very long.
So we’re going to write up another proposal for them to see if they will take our advice this time and get it dry in, so these people can run their business and not be affected.
Do you own or manage a commercial property in Missouri City?
If you got a commercial property or you are managing one, you’re looking to buy one, or you’re looking to buy a house or got a house, you’ve got any leaks… we do inspections, we do replacements, we do repairs we do coatings, you name it, we’ll handle it!
We’ll make it right and yeah, we’ll make sure you’re satisfied that’s what we do, right? make sure our customers are dry, make sure our customers are happy, and make sure everybody is satisfied at the end of the day so we can all go home and sleep at night not worrying about what’s going to be dripping on our heads if there’s rainstorm in the middle of the night.
I hope you guys again are having a great Saturday, it’s already 12:30 and I’m only on #4 out of like 11 so I need to pick up the pace and get to the next one.
So maybe I won’t do a video at all the rest of the day today but we’ll see how that goes. Anyway, I think we found the leak! and so we’re going to move on to the next one. Y’all have a fantastic Saturday hit me up if you need something y’all be good.
Matt #dadbod on your Roof, Trinity Roofing and Restoration see you!
Has the thought of a roof replacement got you down? Did your roof get into a fight with mother nature and lose?
Remember, all is not lost. If you need an emergency roof repair from hurricane damage or storm damage, there are steps you can take to make the process go smoothly.
You can even take steps right away to mitigate the damages and save yourself a lot of money and stress.
So don’t panic if hurricane damage has ravaged your roof! Sit down, read this guide, find out precisely what you should do and how to sort through the insurance mess!
What to Do First
The first thing you need to do is stay calm. You can’t sort anything out when you’re running around and panicking. Often the damage looks worse than it is.
Your next step is to protect your home as best you can and minimize damage to the inside of your home. Cover any holes in your main living areas with plastic tarps, and for more significant leaks, set up buckets to collect the water.
If there is a lot of water seeping from all areas of your roof, then it’s a good idea to find your breaker and switch the power off. You don’t want water getting into your electrical system, costing you even more money!
Now you can thoroughly assess the damage to your home and how safe it is to remain there. You may need to find somewhere safe to stay in the meantime.
And remember, if you’re not a professional roofer, don’t go up there trying to fix things by yourself. An emergency roof repair is a situation when you need to call a professional company that knows precisely what they’re doing.
Contact Your Insurance Company
Next, contact your insurance company and file an insurance claim. Most of the time, standard homeowner insurance policies will cover at least some roof damage caused by a storm.
You’ll need to talk to your insurance company about what your specific policy covers. Depending on the area you live in, you could pay a higher deductible.
A good thing to know is if your policy offers a hurricane deductible, it only applies if the National Hurricane Center declares a hurricane warning.
Don’t forget that insurance companies won’t cover all types of roof damage, and not all insurance companies will pay for a complete roof replacement. Some may only pay for a patch job or minor roof repairs.
Once you contact your insurance company, they’ll send out an insurance adjuster to perform a complete roof inspection.
Next, most insurance companies will ask you to get at least three estimates for a roof repair and a replacement cost.
Though sometimes, insurance companies will directly work with a company to make the repairs for you.
Choosing a Company for Roof Repairs
When it comes to your roof repairs, make sure you find a licensed residential roofing contractor.
Do your research. You want to avoid companies that pop up overnight after a major storm rolls through.
They’ll appear in neighborhoods and try to convince people they can offer inexpensive roof repairs. And once they get your deposit, they hit the road, never to be seen again.
While there are no national licensing requirements for roofing contractors in the US, individual states require roofing contractors to have a license. You can check out your state’s requirements here to get started.
Once you find three companies you like, take your research to Google. Find out what their past customers are saying about the quality of their work.
Now you’ve found a company you like, make a list of questions to ask like:
How long the company has been in business
If they have references or examples of their work
How much do they charge for an estimate
What their safety record is like
If they offer a way for you to terminate the contract
Don’t be afraid to ask all the questions you need to ask. A good roofing company won’t hesitate to explain everything thoroughly.
Your Roof Estimate
It’s also important to know what’s involved in a roof estimate. A knowledgeable roofing company will provide you a detailed estimate with information like:
The total cost, including materials, labor, permits, and cleanup and removal, should be listed clearly on the estimate.
A roof estimate should also list all payment information that clearly explains what your insurance company covers costs. Every payment detail should be included, from down payments and insurance payments to payment methods.
Next, it should include the estimated time it will take to complete the project. Keep in mind, though; this can change if more damage is found after the repairs begin.
An excellent company will list the materials and explain in detail what types of shingles, underlayment, and sealants are used. They’ll even include the types of fasteners, nails, and product brands too.
You should also see a complete description of the work they plan to do and what days the repairs will occur.
Warranty details are a must, so don’t sign any contracts without them. Usually, lifetime warranties offer the most coverage when the roof is still new, and the coverage decreases over time as your roof ages.
Finally, be sure to check for the company’s licensing and liability insurance information. This is important to remember as you want coverage in case any accidents or injuries occur.
Emergency Roof Repair
When you need an emergency roof repair from hurricane damage, then talk to the professionals at Trinity Roofing and Restoration.
For over ten years, Trinity Roofing and Restoration has provided roofing services in Houston, Texas.
So don’t let your roof repair problems get you down. We offer free exterior roof inspections and can guide you through the complicated insurance process.
Make sure you contact us today for a new and improved roof tomorrow!
Next, be sure to read some online reviews to gain insight into their service. Are the customers satisfied with the service they received?
Have any customers written reviews on a commercial roofing replacement? What was the turnaround time? Did they experience any setbacks?
A trusted roofing company can offer you experience and know-how to avoid setbacks. They’ll assess your current roof, then make recommendations on whether it can be saved or not.
Also, make sure that the roofing company you invest in has proper licensing. If not, then the roof they install might not abide by city codes, leading to hefty fines.
2. A Budget Goes a Long Way
Commercial roofs can last for a long time. Most materials will last you anywhere from 10 to 40 years. Metal roofs can last up to 100 years, depending on a variety of factors.
But here’s the thing: eventually, they will all need to be replaced.
While your trusted commercial roofing expert will do all they can to extend the life of your roof, those repairs and replacements can add up quickly if you aren’t prepared.
That’s why we recommend starting to budget them into your company’s monthly budget. Saving up for repairs or replacements, rather than hitting the panic button when they pop up out of nowhere, will help your company avoid a financial setback.
We also recommend scheduling bi-annual roofing inspections. That way, you can remain aware of the upcoming costs, as well as avoid a potential catastrophe with your roof, such as leaks.
Commercial roofing costs depend on a variety of different factors. Such factors include:
The size of your roof
The slope of your roof
The material you wish to install
The process required to tear out your current roof
Schedule an appointment with us today. We’re happy to give you a quote for your potential commercial roof replacement.
3. Frequent Check-Ups Can Help You Avoid Tragedy
When it comes down to brass tacks, your business’s commercial roof is meant to do one thing: protect everything inside.
Far too many Sugar Land, TX, business owners delay their commercial roof replacement or repairs. In doing so, they put their entire company at risk.
A damaged commercial roof can lead to growing leaks, damage to company resources, and take a toll on your property’s value.
The good news is that each of these risks can be avoided with frequent check-ups. Your commercial roofing expert can alert you to upcoming issues and fix them before a water leak occurs.
We typically recommend scheduling a commercial roofing check-up each spring and fall. That way, you’re geared up for the summer and winter months.
4. There Are Many Different Roofing Materials
It’s no secret that roofs can be made from all sorts of different materials. However, people are often surprised to find out how many different materials there are.
You can look into materials such as:
The list goes on and on. You owe it to yourself to look up the different materials and familiarize yourself with their strengths and weaknesses.
Don’t be afraid to rely on us for this decision. You tell us which materials you’re considering and we’ll be happy to make shine some light on the best fit for your needs.
5. The Signs It’s Time for a Replacement
If you’re wondering whether or not it’s time to replace your commercial roof, there are many signs to help. Such signs include:
High Energy Bills
Any of these signs can tell you when it’s time to invest in a commercial roofing replacement.
Delaying the inevitable can land you in a world of hurt. In many situations, insurance providers have refused to cover the cost of damage if they feel the business owner knew of the need to replace the roof, yet chose not to.
Invest in a Commercial Roofing Replacement Today
Now that you have seen several different things to know about commercial roofing replacements, use this information wisely.
Need a new roof over your head? Which types of roof materials are you considering?
If you’re not even sure where to start, start right here. This guide tells everything you need to know about the different types of roofing materials.
You’ll learn the pros and cons of each type of roof, including how long it lasts and how expensive it is. And we cover both sloped roof types and flat roofs as well.
So, which is the best type of roofing material for you? Find out from this guide.
Types of Roof Materials For Sloped Roofs
Sloped roofs are the most popular choice for homes, so we’ll cover these first. Also, if you’re replacing a roof, know that your new roof doesn’t have to be the same type as your old roof.
There are many good reasons why most neighborhood houses are built with asphalt shingle roofs. Namely, they’re both cheap and very protective against the weather.
Also, they’re not very heavy. So they require no special reinforcement when installed.
Plus, they last about 15-20 years and require almost no maintenance. And extreme heat or cold has little effect on them.
However, shingles of any kind might be a bad idea for locations that frequently have strong winds. Such weather can blow the protective shingles right off the roof, making the roof more susceptible to moisture damage.
Metal roofs are also very affordable and low-maintenance. And they’re extremely resilient to the elements and even natural disasters.
Plus, there are many varieties of metal roofing materials to consider. This gives you a bigger price range to choose from compared to other roof types.
It also means that some types of metal roofing will last longer than others. But they should last at least 50 years or more. Some types, like copper or zinc, can last over 100 years.
There is one significant drawback, though. Whenever rain or hail hits your metal roof, it makes a very loud racket that you’ll hear all throughout the house.
Wood Shingles or Shakes
Many people prefer the look of wood shingles to asphalt shingles. But, if you want them, be prepared to pay more upfront and do some maintenance work each year. Mostly, this means keeping your roof clear of debris like dirt and leaves.
Failure to maintain your wood roof could accelerate its decay. But, if you do maintain it well, it can last up to 30 years.
The difference between wood shingles and shakes is that shingles are shaped by machines while shakes are cut manually. This really only affects how they look. They are both just as protective of your home.
Clay or Concrete Tile
Tile roofing is a heavy-duty option that will last you 50 years or more with little maintenance. It’s also very heavy and so will require special reinforcement to hold it up.
But, besides longevity, most people pick tile roofs for how they look. That is, they look notably classier than asphalt shingles or metal roofs. However, that also means they’re quite expensive.
To get an idea of what slate roofs are like, take everything we just said about clay/concrete tile roofing and double it. That is, slate is extra heavy, extra expensive, and will last at least 100 years. It’s also breathtakingly gorgeous.
Types of Roofing Materials For Flat Roofs
Now, let’s take a look at some flat roofing types. Although they’re less popular, they have plenty of unique benefits that shouldn’t be overlooked.
Probably the most common type of flat roof is built-up roofing (BUR). As its name implies, it’s made of asphalt sheets piled several layers high. Each sheet covers the entire area of the roof.
As you can guess, this roof is both very heavy and very weather-resistant. It’s also fire-retardant and strong enough to be used as a floor for rooftop activities. Plus, it’s very affordable and will last 15-20 years.
The biggest drawback of BUR is the installation. It’s loud, smelly, and messy—like road construction on top of your house.
Modified bitumen roofing was designed as an upgrade to BUR. The material itself is very similar to asphalt but not the same thing.
But it’s much lighter and easier to install than BUR, partly because this roofing only requires 2 layers. This also makes it very affordable.
And yet, it’s just as weather-resistant as BUR, too. Plus, modified bitumen roofing can also be used as an outdoor floor.
Thermoplastic Membrane (TPO)
Unlike the first two flat roofs we’ve covered, this type requires only one layer of roofing membrane. The membrane consists of an artificial material called Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO).
Although this roof is extremely lightweight, it’s also powerfully resistant to weather. Plus, it’s significantly resistant to UV rays and bacterial growth.
It’s hard to say how long it will last, though, as the technology is still somewhat new. But, when it does need replacing, it can be recycled.
Thermoset Membrane (EPDM)
This roofing membrane has similar properties to TPO but is made of a rubber-based material. Not only is it lightweight, but it’s also a very good insulator.
It, too, is resistant to UV rays and is easy to install. Plus, it should last you up to 50 years. However, hot weather might cause it to warp or tear.
Need Some More Information About the Different Types of Roofing Materials?
We hope this guide has answered all your questions about the different types of roof materials. But, if you still need to know more, don’t hesitate to ask the experts of Trinity Roofing and restoration.